Friedland, Joffe, Moore, et al. (1992) conducted an experiment to see how an educational program on the importance of using gloves affected the rate of glove use by a group of nurses in an inner-city pediatric hospital emergency department. The participants in the study were all 23 members of the emergency department's nursing staff. Without their knowledge, the nurses were observed during vascular access procedures before and one, two, and five months after an educational program to see how often they wore gloves. Each procedure by a nurse was counted as a separate observation.
The overall rate of glove use (total number of procedures where nurses wore gloves divided by total number of observed procedures) is 74%. Comparing rates for before and after the educational program shows that the rate of glove use more than doubled. Separate glove use rates for each period in the study show a large increase immediately after the educational program, followed by a gradual decline in glove use through the 5th month.
The years of experience of the nurses seems to be related to glove use. One way to illustrate this is to calculate glove use rates for each period by experience level. The researchers suggest dividing the nurses in to two categories, those with three or fewer years of experience and those with more than three years of experience. The image below shows separate glove use trends for experienced and inexperienced nurses. Notice that the X-axis shows period, not time. The periods in this study are not equally spaced.