An educator conducted an experiment to test whether new directed reading activities in the classroom will help elementary school pupils improve some aspects of their reading ability. She arranged for a third grade class of 21 students to follow these activities for an 8-week period. A control classroom of 23 third graders followed the same curriculum without the activities. At the end of the 8 weeks, all students took a Degree of Reading Power (DRP) test, which measures the aspects of reading ability that the treatment is designed to improve.
Summary statistics on the two groups of children show that the average score of the treatment class was almost ten points higher than the average of the control class. A two-sample t-test is appropriate for testing whether this difference is statistically significant. The t-statistic is 2.31, which is significant at the .05 level.