In 1798, Henry Cavendish estimated the density of the earth by using a torsion balance. The "Cavendish" dataset contains his 29 measurements of the density of the earth, presented as a multiple of the density of water. The average measurement is 5.42, suggesting that the density of the ...

In 1879, A. A. Michelson made 100 determinations of the velocity of light in air using a modification of a method proposed by the French physicist Foucault. These measurements were grouped into five trials of 20 measurements each. The numbers are in km/sec, and have had 299,000 subtracted from th...